Wind instruments – Clay Wood Winds http://clay-wood-winds.com/ Fri, 23 Sep 2022 01:53:45 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://clay-wood-winds.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/icon-6-120x120.png Wind instruments – Clay Wood Winds http://clay-wood-winds.com/ 32 32 Playing wind instruments spreads more viruses than breathing, but less than talking or singing https://clay-wood-winds.com/playing-wind-instruments-spreads-more-viruses-than-breathing-but-less-than-talking-or-singing/ Thu, 22 Sep 2022 19:12:22 +0000 https://clay-wood-winds.com/playing-wind-instruments-spreads-more-viruses-than-breathing-but-less-than-talking-or-singing/ A relatively large number of viruses can emerge from the clarinet. It releases significantly more aerosols, which may contain pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, compared to other instruments such as the flute. However, the risk of transmission from an infected person on a wind instrument is generally much lower than for people who sing or speak, […]]]>

A relatively large number of viruses can emerge from the clarinet. It releases significantly more aerosols, which may contain pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, compared to other instruments such as the flute. However, the risk of transmission from an infected person on a wind instrument is generally much lower than for people who sing or speak, provided they spend the same amount of time in its vicinity. This is the conclusion drawn by a research team from the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPI-DS) in Göttingen and the University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) in an extensive study. The researchers determined the emission of particles and the associated maximum risk of transmission when playing many different wind instruments. The results provide clues as to how cultural events can be organized with the lowest possible risk of infection, even during the pandemic.

The most risky instrument is the voice, at least when it comes to spreading viruses such as SARS-CoV-2. Compared to silent breathing, during singing or speaking, infected people release more than 500 times particles into the air, which may contain viruses. When people play music with wind instruments, far fewer aerosols enter the environment than during singing – but still 5 to 50 times more than during breathing, as studied by a team led by Mohsen Bagheri and Eberhard Bodenschatz, director of the MPI-DS and professor at the faculty of physics at the University of Göttingen. Together with colleagues from the Institute of Hospital Hygiene and Infectiology at UMG, the researchers analyzed how many particles of which size are released when 20 different wind instruments are played. They took the measurements under controlled conditions in a clean room and determined the upper limit of transmission risk with the omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 from the results in each case. The study is freely available.

The risk of transmission depends on the instrument

“Amazingly, we found that musical instruments are less risky than talking or singing,” says Mohsen Bagheri, head of an aerosol research group at MPI-DS. As the study by the Göttingen team shows, it is mainly the large respiratory droplets, which are particularly important for the transmission of viruses, which remain trapped in the wind instruments. The instruments thus act as a filter for larger particles. However, wind music is not safe for musicians and audiences from an infection protection perspective. This is due to the fact that particles with a size of less than five micrometers mainly emerge from the instrument. They stay in the air longer and travel further, so they can reach high concentrations, especially in unventilated rooms. The number of these small particles released by wind music is also highly instrument-dependent: while the team measured a very low concentration of released particles for various flutes, the measurements yielded values ​​for the clarinet almost as high. only for singing.

For example, at a distance of one and a half meters from a clarinet and a trombone, the risk of transmission already reaches 50% after four minutes. However, at the same distance from a flute, this risk of transmission is only reached after three hours. All the values ​​of the other instruments measured were between the two.

Masks for instruments and personal protection

In their study, the team also investigated how effectively the risk of transmission could be reduced by particulate filters with properties similar to the fleece of FFP2 masks. They placed the prototype masks at the ends of the brass; the wind instruments were almost completely enclosed in the filter material. “For brass instruments, an instrument mask reliably reduces the emission of infectious particles,” said study lead author Oliver Schlenczek. If, in addition, the public also wears an FFP2 mask, the risk of transmission is only 0.2%, even after one hour. Simone Scheithauer, director of the Institute of Hospital Hygiene and Infectious Diseases at the UMG, considers these results to be very positive: “On this basis, we can recommend much more targeted protective measures in the future and maintain the musical cultural activities with only minor restrictions even in critical situations,” she says.

“With adequate ventilation and the wearing of FFP2 masks, lessons, rehearsals and concerts with wind instruments can take place safely,” concludes aerosol researcher Eberhard Bodenschatz.

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Wind instruments don’t spit COVID more than speech: study https://clay-wood-winds.com/wind-instruments-dont-spit-covid-more-than-speech-study/ Fri, 19 Aug 2022 18:46:30 +0000 https://clay-wood-winds.com/wind-instruments-dont-spit-covid-more-than-speech-study/ August 19, 2022 — Good news for music lovers and musicians alike: Wind instruments don’t seem to shed more COVID-19 particles than speech, according to a new study. New research from the University of Pennsylvania, along with members of the Philadelphia Orchestra, has found that wind instruments do not spread COVID-19 particles further or faster […]]]>

August 19, 2022 — Good news for music lovers and musicians alike: Wind instruments don’t seem to shed more COVID-19 particles than speech, according to a new study.

New research from the University of Pennsylvania, along with members of the Philadelphia Orchestra, has found that wind instruments do not spread COVID-19 particles further or faster than a human would during normal speech.

“We are probably one of the first studies to combine aerosol flow rate and concentration measurements to study aerosol dispersion from wind instruments,” says Paulo Arratia, PhD, professor of mechanical engineering and applied mechanics at the university, which conducted the study.

Arratia and his colleagues used a particle counter, humidifier, and green laser to visualize and measure how much and how quickly aerosols sprang from wind instruments (think brass and woodwind instruments) as members of the orchestra played their instrument continuously for almost 2 minutes. They measured the output of many instruments, including flutes, clarinets, trumpets and tubas.

The challenge was figuring out how far apart musicians could be to play their instruments without requiring a plexiglass barrier or risking the spread of COVID-19 to ensemble members or the audience, says Arratia.

The researchers created a fog-like environment near the opening of the instrument using an ultrasonic humidifier. A green laser illuminated the artificial fog. With so much moisture in the air and a light source streaming through, Arratia and the other researchers were able to measure the abundance and velocity of the aerosolized particles.

Most of the released particles were less than a micrometer thick, similar to what would occur with normal breathing and speaking.

The virus particles weren’t ejected from the opening of the wind instruments as violently as when a person coughs or sneezes, Arratia says. Indeed, the flow rate was less than 0.1 meters per second, almost 50 times slower than the speed of a cough or sneeze, which fluctuates between 5 and 10 meters per second, according to the study.

And the particles from most instruments only traveled about 6 feet before decaying to background airstream levels. Only two instruments in the study, the flute and the trombone, sent particles over 6 feet before the aerosol fell to undetectable levels. Therefore, keeping woodwind and brass players 6 feet apart can also help reduce the spread and contamination of COVID-19 particles during live performances, Arratia says.

Nonetheless, the COVID-19 protocols are worth replaying.

“Just being able to play together was enough to allay people’s fears that it was worth it,” Shulman says. “We just want to maintain and create a safe space for everyone.”

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Wind instruments are no worse than talking, breathing to spread COVID-19 https://clay-wood-winds.com/wind-instruments-are-no-worse-than-talking-breathing-to-spread-covid-19/ Wed, 17 Aug 2022 16:22:41 +0000 https://clay-wood-winds.com/wind-instruments-are-no-worse-than-talking-breathing-to-spread-covid-19/ congerdesign/Pixabay” alt=”For most instruments, the maximum spread of aerosols was less than 2 meters, according to a recent study. Photo of congerdesign/Pixabay“/> For most instruments, the maximum aerosol spread was less than 2 meters, a recent study showed. Photo by congerdesign/Pixabay Hit the band! Aerosols produced by wind instruments like trombones and flutes are no […]]]>

congerdesign/Pixabay” alt=”For most instruments, the maximum spread of aerosols was less than 2 meters, according to a recent study. Photo of congerdesign/Pixabay“/>

For most instruments, the maximum aerosol spread was less than 2 meters, a recent study showed. Photo by congerdesign/Pixabay

Hit the band!

Aerosols produced by wind instruments like trombones and flutes are no more of a concern than those emitted during normal speech and breathing, a new study finds.

For the study, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania worked with the Philadelphia Orchestra to better understand the amount of aerosol produced and dispersed by wind instruments.

After canceling public performances early in the pandemic, many bands began performing remotely or with limited crowds, the study notes.

“Ideally, musicians would sit next to each other to compose the best sound, but such an arrangement has become an issue during the COVID pandemic,” said study author Paulo Arratia, a professor of engineering. at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

Arratia and his team first used visualization to characterize the flow, tracking fog particles in the air with a laser. They measured the concentration of aerosols from wind instruments with a particle counter.

By combining these two measurements, the researchers developed a simple equation to describe the scattering of aerosols, in which the speed of the aerosols decreases as the distance from the instrument increases.

The goal was to help other researchers determine the distance traveled by aerosols. The researchers were amazed at what the tests revealed.

“We were surprised that the amount of aerosol produced was in the same range as normal speech,” Arratia said. “I expected much higher flow rates and aerosol concentrations.”

The investigators also found that the speeds were much slower than when someone coughs or sneezes. For most instruments, the maximum spread was less than 2 meters, the results showed.

This means that musicians playing wind instruments must stay 6 feet apart.

The researchers now plan to study the amount of aerosols and fluxes produced when the whole orchestra is playing.

“I hope this manuscript will guide health officials in developing protocols for safe, live music events,” Arratia said.

The results were published Tuesday in Physics of Fluids.

The provincial government of Manitoba, Canada has guidelines for musicians during COVID-19.

]]> Blow Your Horn: Do Wind Instruments Spread COVID? – Consumer Health News https://clay-wood-winds.com/blow-your-horn-do-wind-instruments-spread-covid-consumer-health-news/ Wed, 17 Aug 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://clay-wood-winds.com/blow-your-horn-do-wind-instruments-spread-covid-consumer-health-news/ WEDNESDAY, August 17, 2022 (HealthDay News) — Get the band on! Aerosols produced by wind instruments like trombones and flutes are no more of a concern than those emitted during normal speaking and breathing, a new study finds. For the study, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania worked with the Philadelphia Orchestra to better understand […]]]>

WEDNESDAY, August 17, 2022 (HealthDay News) — Get the band on!

Aerosols produced by wind instruments like trombones and flutes are no more of a concern than those emitted during normal speaking and breathing, a new study finds.

For the study, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania worked with the Philadelphia Orchestra to better understand the amount of aerosol produced and dispersed by wind instruments.

After canceling public performances early in the pandemic, many bands began performing remotely or with limited crowds, the study notes.

“Ideally, musicians would sit next to each other to compose the best sound, but such an arrangement has become an issue during the COVID pandemic,” said study author Paulo Arratia, a professor of engineering. at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

Arratia and his team first used visualization to characterize the flow, tracking fog particles in the air with a laser. They measured the concentration of aerosols from wind instruments with a particle counter.

By combining these two measurements, the researchers developed a simple equation to describe the scattering of aerosols, in which the speed of the aerosols decreases as the distance from the instrument increases.

The goal was to help other researchers determine the distance traveled by aerosols. The researchers were amazed at what the tests revealed.

“We were surprised that the amount of aerosol produced was in the same range as normal speech,” Arratia said. “I expected much higher flow velocities and aerosol concentrations.”

The investigators also found that the speeds were much slower than when someone coughs or sneezes. For most instruments, the maximum spread was less than 2 meters, the results showed.

This means that musicians playing wind instruments must stay six feet apart.

The researchers now plan to study the amount of aerosols and fluxes produced when the whole orchestra is playing.

“I hope this manuscript will guide health officials in developing protocols for safe, live music events,” Arratia said.

The results were published on August 16 in Fluid physics.

The provincial government of Manitoba, Canada has guidelines for musicians during COVID-19.

SOURCE: American Institute of Physics, new version, August 16, 2022

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Do wind instruments disperse COVID aerosol droplets? https://clay-wood-winds.com/do-wind-instruments-disperse-covid-aerosol-droplets/ Tue, 16 Aug 2022 18:10:05 +0000 https://clay-wood-winds.com/do-wind-instruments-disperse-covid-aerosol-droplets/ Visualization of the flow emanating from a tuba using the laser sheet technique. The image shows a member of the Philadelphia Orchestra, Carol Jantsch, principal tubist, who participated in the study of the dispersion of aerosols by wind musical instruments. Credit: Paulo E. Arratia During the COVID-19 pandemic, many live music events and festivals have […]]]>

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many live music events and festivals have been postponed and even canceled to protect musicians and audience members. When they started performing again, many bands resorted to performances with distant or limited crowds. They also adapt their repertoire to favor string pieces and considerably modify the number of musicians and their positions in the auditorium.

Orchestral ensembles faced a particular challenge. Contamination is a major concern: in particular, if wind instruments are vectors of contamination by dispersion of aerosols.

In Fluid physicsresearchers from the University of Pennsylvania worked with musicians from the Philadelphia Orchestra to further our understanding of the amount of aerosol produced and dispersed by wind instruments.

“Ideally, musicians would sit next to each other to compose the best sound, but such an arrangement has become an issue during the COVID pandemic,” said author Paulo Arratia, of the University of Pennsylvania.

The researchers used visualization to characterize the flow, then tracked the fog particles in the air with a laser. They also measured the aerosol concentration of wind instruments with a particle counter.

Next, they combined these two measurements to develop a simple equation to describe aerosol scatter, in which aerosol velocity decreases with distance from the instrument. The idea is to help other researchers determine the distance traveled by aerosols by measuring the speed of the outflow. This indicates how fast the flow will decrease.

Aerosols emitted from wind instruments shared a similar concentration and size distribution to normal speech and breathing events.

“We were surprised that the amount of aerosol produced was in the same range as normal speech,” Arratia said. “I expected much higher flow rates and aerosol concentrations.”

Flow measurements (using particle image velocimetry) have shown that outflow jet velocities are much lower than cough and sneeze events. For most instruments, the maximum decay length is less than 2 meters from the opening of the instrument. Therefore, wind musicians should stay 6 feet apart, as the recommendation for individuals.

Researchers will then look at aerosol scatter contamination from a group perspective to understand the amount of aerosols and fluxes produced by the entire orchestra playing together.

“I hope this manuscript will guide health officials in developing protocols for safe, live music events,” Arratia said.

Make music and the flow of aerosols

Quentin Brosseau et al, Flow rate and dispersion of aerosols from musical wind instruments, Fluid physics (2022). DOI: 10.1063/5.0098273

Provided by the American Institute of Physics

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Do wind instruments disperse COVID aerosol droplets? The measurement of the outflow velocity determines the distance traveled by the aerosols and, therefore, the decay rate of the outflow https://clay-wood-winds.com/do-wind-instruments-disperse-covid-aerosol-droplets-the-measurement-of-the-outflow-velocity-determines-the-distance-traveled-by-the-aerosols-and-therefore-the-decay-rate-of-the-outflow/ Tue, 16 Aug 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://clay-wood-winds.com/do-wind-instruments-disperse-covid-aerosol-droplets-the-measurement-of-the-outflow-velocity-determines-the-distance-traveled-by-the-aerosols-and-therefore-the-decay-rate-of-the-outflow/ During the COVID-19 pandemic, many live music events and festivals have been postponed and even canceled to protect musicians and audience members. When they started performing again, many bands resorted to performances with distant or limited crowds. They also adapt their repertoire to favor string pieces and considerably modify the number of musicians and their […]]]>

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many live music events and festivals have been postponed and even canceled to protect musicians and audience members. When they started performing again, many bands resorted to performances with distant or limited crowds. They also adapt their repertoire to favor string pieces and considerably modify the number of musicians and their positions in the auditorium.

Orchestral ensembles faced a particular challenge. Contamination is a major concern: in particular, if wind instruments are vectors of contamination by dispersion of aerosols.

In Fluid physicsby AIP Publishing, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania worked with musicians from the Philadelphia Orchestra to further our understanding of the amount of aerosol produced and dispersed by wind instruments.

“Ideally, musicians would sit next to each other to compose the best sound, but such an arrangement has become a problem during the COVID pandemic,” said author Paulo Arratia, of the University of Pennsylvania.

The researchers used visualization to characterize the flow, then tracked the fog particles in the air with a laser. They also measured the aerosol concentration of wind instruments with a particle counter.

Next, they combined these two measurements to develop a simple equation to describe aerosol scatter, in which aerosol velocity decreases with distance from the instrument. The idea is to help other researchers determine the distance traveled by aerosols by measuring the speed of the outflow. This indicates how fast the flow will decrease.

Aerosols emitted from wind instruments shared a similar concentration and size distribution to normal speech and breathing events.

“We were surprised that the amount of aerosol produced was in the same range as normal speech,” Arratia said. “I expected much higher flow velocities and aerosol concentrations.”

Flow measurements (using particle image velocimetry) have shown that outflow jet velocities are much lower than cough and sneeze events. For most instruments, the maximum decay length is less than 2 meters from the opening of the instrument. Therefore, wind musicians should stay 6 feet apart, as the recommendation for individuals.

Researchers will then look at aerosol scatter contamination from a group perspective to understand the amount of aerosols and fluxes produced by the entire orchestra playing together.

“I hope this manuscript will guide health officials in developing protocols for safe, live music events,” Arratia said.

Source of the story:

Material provided by American Institute of Physics. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

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New research: Playing wind instruments can spread respiratory particles https://clay-wood-winds.com/new-research-playing-wind-instruments-can-spread-respiratory-particles/ Sat, 16 Jul 2022 09:14:53 +0000 https://clay-wood-winds.com/new-research-playing-wind-instruments-can-spread-respiratory-particles/ Just like coughing, sneezing, talking and singing, playing wind instruments — especially brass instruments — can spread respiratory particles that can carry the virus that causes Covid-19, according to a study from Colorado State University (CSU ). Early in the pandemic, CSU engineers led by Professor John Volckens teamed up with musicians and performers to […]]]>

Just like coughing, sneezing, talking and singing, playing wind instruments — especially brass instruments — can spread respiratory particles that can carry the virus that causes Covid-19, according to a study from Colorado State University (CSU ).

Early in the pandemic, CSU engineers led by Professor John Volckens teamed up with musicians and performers to try to quantify respiratory particle emissions from various activities like singing and music, the CSU said. in a press release. The researchers have now published the results of their measurements of particulate emissions from playing wind instruments, including brass and woodwind instruments, in the journal Scientific Reports.

They used a state-of-the-art aerosol measurement chamber and recruited volunteers to perform in the chamber while aerosol emissions from themselves – or their instruments – were analyzed. For the study of instruments, they had 81 volunteer performers who played woodwind instruments including bassoon, clarinet, French horn, oboe, piccolo, saxophone, trombone, trumpet, and tuba.

Brass instruments, on average, produced 191% more aerosols than woodwinds, according to the release. According to the researchers, being male was associated with a 70% increase in emissions from playing instruments, likely due to lung size and capacity. Louder brass playing was associated with higher particle counts, but louder woodwind playing did not increase emissions.

The researchers also took action with performers using bells to try to dampen the spread of the particles, which seemed to work. Bell use covers emission reductions for trombone, tuba and trumpet players, with average reductions of 53-73%, but not for oboe or clarinet.

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Volckens compared bell covers to blue surgical instrument masks — good, but not great at limiting the spread. “The data suggests that masks and bells reduce particles leaving the mouth or instrument by half to 75%. And the reason blue surgical masks or bell covers don’t work better is that they just don’t fit well. These devices do not achieve an N95 level of protection,” he said in the statement. He quoted him as saying that “if we could make N95s for the instruments” that would probably help reduce the emissions from the brass, but not the woodwinds, because those instruments have too many exhaust holes before the bell. A single-output instrument like a trumpet is easier to control with protective measures.

According to the release, the study confirms that at the start of the pandemic, shutting down the performing arts in the name of safety likely saved lives.

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Aerosol emissions from wind instruments: effects of performer age, gender, sound pressure level and bells https://clay-wood-winds.com/aerosol-emissions-from-wind-instruments-effects-of-performer-age-gender-sound-pressure-level-and-bells/ Mon, 04 Jul 2022 07:00:00 +0000 https://clay-wood-winds.com/aerosol-emissions-from-wind-instruments-effects-of-performer-age-gender-sound-pressure-level-and-bells/ Study subjects Healthy adult performers, ages 18 and older, and underage performers, ages 12 to 18, were recruited to participate in the study. All participants provided written informed consent, or assent in the case of minors (accompanied by parent/guardian informed consent), in accordance with US regulatory guidelines for research involving human subjects (experimental protocols were […]]]>

### Study subjects

Healthy adult performers, ages 18 and older, and underage performers, ages 12 to 18, were recruited to participate in the study. All participants provided written informed consent, or assent in the case of minors (accompanied by parent/guardian informed consent), in accordance with US regulatory guidelines for research involving human subjects (experimental protocols were approved by the Colorado State University Institutional Review Board, Approval #20-10174H). We recruited adults and minors (aged 12 to 17) in roughly equal proportion and in groups of 6 to 8 performers for each of the following instruments: clarinet, bassoon, flute, oboe, piccolo, saxophone (alto and tenor), French horn, trumpet, trombone and tuba. In addition, we recruited 16 singers (half professional/adult, half minor) to characterize the singing shows. These combinations (7 participants for 10 instruments and 16 singers) yielded a target panel size of n=86. Recruitment included both males and females to assess the effect of gender (male or female; assigned to birth) on emissions.

Participants brought their own instruments to the testing facility (described below) as well as a personal mask/face covering. For safety reasons, participants were excluded from the study if they actively exhibited symptoms of COVID-19, had a previous diagnosis of COVID-19 within the previous month, or had known exposure to someone with COVID-19. COVID-19 in the previous month. 14 days (as per national and local quarantine protocols at time of study).

Each participant performed a series of maneuvers specific to their specialty and level of ability, during a measurement session of approximately 2 hours. These maneuvers included the game of Balance, a prescribed directory which was provided to participants at least two weeks before the measurement session [selection]a self-selected directory at the choice of each participant [freestyle]and two generic vocal maneuvers [talking and singing]. This article focuses on aerosol emissions from trained instrumentalists and vocalists when performing scales, prescribed selections, and self-selected repertoires (generic vocal maneuver results have been published previously15). Each maneuver was repeated continuously over a period of four minutes, during which aerosol emissions were measured. Participants wore lint-free coveralls and lint-free hair nets (disposable polypropylene coveralls, McMaster-Carr, IL) in the facility to minimize particle loss from their clothing and hair, respectively. Between each maneuver, a background measurement was taken while participants wore their personal face coverings for at least two minutes and sat quietly, approximately 2 m from the aerosol collection instruments.

### Measurements

Participants performed the maneuvers inside a 3.45 m × 2.8 m × 2.45 m climatic chamber15.38 ventilated with HEPA filtered air. Chamber airflow was monitored (~8.5 air changes per hour) and environmental conditions (temperature, humidity) inside the chamber were recorded along with all measurement data. using LabVIEW (National Instruments, TX, version 21.0, https://www.ni.com/en-us/shop/labview.html) instrument control and data acquisition software. A constant volume sampling device (10 L min−1 total flow) was used to capture aerosol emissions directly downstream of the instrument bell or the participant’s mouth (Figure S1). The sampling apparatus was mounted on a hinged frame and attached to a height-adjustable table. Participants performed standing maneuvers (except for the French horn, for which participants were seated in a chair), with the angle and height of the sampling inlet cone adjusted so that their instrument bell was positioned directly in front of and in approximate planar alignment with the center of the cone face (in the case of the singers, the entrance cone was adjusted to align with their mouth). An isokinetic sampling probe (inner diameter 0.05 m) was installed at the narrow end of the inlet cone (0.22 m from the front plane of the cone face). An optical particle counter (OPC; model 11D, GRIMM Tech.) was connected to the probe to quantify the number and size of particles between 0.25 and 35.15 μm in diameter (31 logarithmically spaced size bins at a resolution five seconds; inlet flow 1.2 L min−1). Carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios were measured further downstream at 1 s resolution with a non-dispersive infrared spectrometer (LI-820, LI-COR Biosciences). The outlet of the sampling device was vented to the outside.

In a subset of performers, we also measured sound pressure levels (n = 32 participants) and the effect of bell covers (n = 67 participants) on reducing aerosol emissions from instruments. Sound pressure levels (i.e. the volume of the instrument above the ambient background) were recorded during the maneuvers at a fixed location approximately 0.3 m above the face of the cone sampling using a prepolarized free-field condenser microphone with a preamplifier (model 378B02l + 426E01, PCB Piezotronics Inc.). The bell covers were constructed from two layers of spandex and an inner layer of Halyard H600 medical wrap and sized to fit a variety of instrument bells. For particles larger than 1 μm in aerodynamic diameter, the efficiency of the bell lid was 95–99.9% (see supplement for details on the aerosol collection efficiency of bell lids). The efficiency decreased to approximately 80% at 0.5 μm (the lower size limit for this protocol). Not all participants chose to use the bell covers due to poor sizing/fitting (i.e. the covers available did not fit all instruments); a few participants chose not to use the bell cover due to perceived airflow restrictions and/or impeded playability of the instrument. Bell’s coverage results were therefore limited to instruments with 3 or more participant measurements to provide a measure of statistical confidence.

To establish background levels, participants were asked to sit in a corner of the chamber, approximately 2 m from the sampling device, while wearing a face mask. For each background measure, the participants waited, before and after each maneuver, until the total number of particles approaches 50 L−1, as determined by the OPC. During this time, basic data was also recorded for CO2 and ambient sound pressure levels. Further details on instrumentation, measurement system and background corrections are provided in the online supplement.

### Data analytics

All data analyzes were performed in R (R Core Team, version 4.1.2, https://www.r-project.org/). Time series data for each participant were averaged throughout the maneuver (each duration approximately 4 minutes). Results are reported in terms of near-field concentration (i.e. the concentration of particles measured in the sampling device immediately downstream of the instrument [particles L−1 of sampled air]), particle emission rate (i.e., the particles s−1), or CO2-standardized emission factor (i.e. near-field concentrations divided by measured CO2 mixing ratio, corrected for background noise).

We developed linear mixed models to explore how the following variables affect aerosol emissions: type and/or class of instrument (i.e. voice, woodwind, brass), type of maneuver (ranges, selection , freestyle), instrument sound pressure level (A-weighted decibels), participant’s gender (assigned at birth; male versus female), participant’s age (minor versus adult), and use of a bell cover. Models assessed maneuver, gender, age, sound pressure level, and type (or class) of instrument as fixed effects, including a random intercept term to account for correlation in the repeated measures of each participant. The measured emissions data have been transformed into natural logarithm to reduce the asymmetry of their distribution. Results are presented as the percent change in geometric mean emissions from a given fixed effect, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Linear mixed models take the following general form:

$$Y_{i,j} = ln left( {emission rate_{i,j} } right) = {upbeta }_{0} + {{varvec{upbeta}}}^{ T} {varvec{X}}_{i,j} + alpha_{i} + epsilon_{i,j}$$

(1)

where ({Y}_{i,j}) represents the log-transformed emissions for Ie participant and Ith maneuver, ({{varvec{X}}}_{i,j}) represents a set of fixed-effect variables (e.g., age, gender, device class, etc.) for each measure, ({varvec{upbeta}}) is the vector of the coefficients for the fixed effects, and ({alpha}_{i}) represents a random intercept term for the participant I. The last term, ({epsilon}_{i,j}), represents the residual model error (i.e. unexplained variation) that is assumed to have a mean of zero and be normally distributed with constant error variance. We used a likelihood ratio test to assess whether there was a significant difference in geometric mean aerosol concentration between different maneuvers, genders, or ages. Statistical significance was assessed at the 0.05 level. The percentage of variation explained by the model was calculated using conditional and marginal R239.

The relationship between sound pressure level and emissions was assessed with Pearson correlations and a linear mixed model that included fixed effects for sound pressure level and its interaction with instrument type. The effect of the bell covers was assessed by using an interaction term with each instrument in a model that also controlled for age, gender, and participant. For bell cover analyses, we normalize emissions data to background-corrected CO2 mixing ratio measured downstream of the instrument, as previous work suggests that ill-fitting barriers and/or control technologies can redirect airflow orthogonally to the direction of exhaled air8,40,41. Thus, normalizing to CO2 we account for sampling losses (i.e. air that did not enter the sampling device) in the measured emissions that could differentially bias comparisons with or without a bell. We tested the effects of CO2 normalization in subsequent sensitivity analyses.

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Wind Instruments Market Share Growth Challenges 2022, https://clay-wood-winds.com/wind-instruments-market-share-growth-challenges-2022/ Wed, 01 Jun 2022 10:58:00 +0000 https://clay-wood-winds.com/wind-instruments-market-share-growth-challenges-2022/ The new report by Market Research Inc. titled Global Wind instruments Market Report and Forecast 2022-2030′, gives a top to bottom analysis of the global wind instruments market, assessing the market based on its segments such as types, distribution channels, processes, applications and regions. The report tracks the latest industry trends and studies their effect […]]]>

The new report by Market Research Inc. titled Global Wind instruments Market Report and Forecast 2022-2030′, gives a top to bottom analysis of the global wind instruments market, assessing the market based on its segments such as types, distribution channels, processes, applications and regions. The report tracks the latest industry trends and studies their effect on the overall market. It also assesses market dynamics, covering key demand and price indicators and analyzing the market based on SWOT and Porter’s Five Forces models.

A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is vibrated by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece placed at or near the end of the resonator. The pitch of the vibration is determined by the length of the tube and by manual changes to the effective length of the vibrating air column. In the case of some wind instruments, the sound is produced by blowing into a reed; others require buzzing into a metal mouthpiece.

Get sample report with global industry analysis @ https://www.marketresearchinc.com/request-sample.php?id=109188

The scope of the report:
The report segments the global wind instruments market on the basis of application, type, service, innovation, and region. Each chapter of this segmentation allows the readers to grasp the details of the market. An expanded look at segment-based analysis aims to give readers a deeper insight into the opportunities and threats in the market. It further discusses political scenarios that are expected to impact the market both small and large. The Global Wind Instruments Market report examines changing regulatory scenarios to make accurate projections on potential investments. It also assesses the risk to new entrants and the intensity of competitive rivalry.

Leading companies in this report include:
Yamaha, Roland, Marshall, Ampeg, Denon DJ, Gibson Brands, Steinway & Sons, Blackstar, Behringer, Fender Musical Instruments, Korg

Segmental analysis:
The segmentation of the Wind Instruments market into its sub-markets has been done to aid in researching the structure of the market. The individual production of these submarkets has been analyzed to determine key growth segments. In the wind instruments market, major regions are listed as North America, Latin America, Asia-Pacific, Europe and Middle East & Africa. The report provides an in-depth analysis of all major components of the Wind Instruments market and provides forecasts for each market segment.

By types
Brass instruments
• Wind instruments

By apps
• Personal use
• Commercial

Factors and risks:
The report pays close attention to factors contributing to the growth of the Wind Instruments market, also known as market drivers. Any variation in this market dynamics directly affects the growth of the market. Hence, the report provides an upcoming insight into important factors that need to be watched and which could be exploited to their advantage by businesses, suppliers, distributors and all stakeholders. The report also provides an overview of the challenges faced by the market and the strategies used by the existing players to overcome or avoid these risks.

The main points covered in the report:

Overview: In this section, the definition of the global Wind Instruments market is given, along with an outline of the report to provide insight into the consultancy on the nature and content of the research study.

Analysis of Industry Players’ Strategies: This strategic analysis will help in gaining a competitive edge over their competitors for market players.

Key Market Trends: An in-depth analysis of recent and future market trends is provided in this section.

Market Forecast: In this segment, accurate and validated values ​​of the total market size in terms of value and volume have been provided by the research analyst. Additionally, the report includes production, consumption, sales, and other forecasts for the global wind instruments market.

Regional Analysis: In the Global Wind Instruments Market report, five major regions and its countries have been covered. Market players will have estimations on untapped regional markets and other advantages with the help of this analysis.

Segment Analysis: Accurate and reliable forecasts on the market share of essential sections of the wind instruments market are provided

Customizing this report: This report can be customized to your needs. Please contact our sales professional (sales@marketresearchinc.com), we will ensure that you get the report that suits your needs.

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Author: Kevin
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This press release was published on openPR.

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Wind Instruments Market Size and Forecast https://clay-wood-winds.com/wind-instruments-market-size-and-forecast/ Sun, 29 May 2022 08:20:00 +0000 https://clay-wood-winds.com/wind-instruments-market-size-and-forecast/ New Jersey, United States – Verified Market Reports has released the latest proficient intelligence market research report on the Wind Instruments market. The report aims to provide an in-depth and accurate analysis of the Wind Instruments market, considering market forecasts, competitive intelligence, technical risks, innovations and other relevant data. Its meticulously prepared market intelligence enables […]]]>

New Jersey, United States – Verified Market Reports has released the latest proficient intelligence market research report on the Wind Instruments market. The report aims to provide an in-depth and accurate analysis of the Wind Instruments market, considering market forecasts, competitive intelligence, technical risks, innovations and other relevant data. Its meticulously prepared market intelligence enables market players to understand the most important market trends affecting their business. Readers will learn about significant opportunities in the global Wind Instruments market, along with key factors driving and inhibiting growth.

The research report is an accurate summary of the macro and micro-economic elements that influence the growth of the Wind Instruments market. This will help market players to make necessary adjustments in their strategies for growth and maintaining their position in the industry. The wind instruments market is segmented into three categories: product type, application, and geographical region. Each segment is thoroughly examined so that players can focus on the high growth segments of the Wind Instruments market and increase their sales. The competitive landscape is also revealed, allowing players to develop effective strategies and effectively compete in the global Wind Instruments market.

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Know your current situation in the market! Not only an important element for new products but also for current products given the ever-changing market dynamics. The study allows marketers to stay in touch with current consumer trends and segments where they may face a rapid drop in market share. Find out who you really compete against in the marketplace, with Market Share analysis and market position, % market share and Segmented Revenue of Wind Instruments market.

Top Key Players in Wind Instruments Market Research Report:

Yamaha, Roland, Marshall, Ampeg, Denon DJ, Gibson Brands, Steinway & Sons, Blackstar, Behringer, Fender Musical Instruments, Korg

Essential demographic, geographic, psychographic and behavioral information about business segments in the Wind Instruments market is targeted to aid in determining the features company should encompass in order to fit into the business requirements. For the consumer-based market – the study is also categorized with Market Maker insights to better understand who the customers are, their buying behavior, and their habits.

Key Segments Covered in the Wind Instruments Market – Industry Analysis by Types, Applications, and Regions:

Wind Instruments Market – Type Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2017-2029)

Brass instruments
• Wind instruments

Wind Instruments Market – Application Outlook (Revenue, USD Million, 2017-2029)

• Personal use
• Commercial

Scope of the Wind Instruments Market Report

ATTRIBUTES DETAILS
ESTIMATED YEAR 2022
YEAR OF REFERENCE 2021
FORECAST YEAR 2029
HISTORICAL YEAR 2020
UNITY Value (million USD/billion)
SECTORS COVERED Types, applications, end users, and more.
REPORT COVER Revenue Forecast, Business Ranking, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors and Trends
BY REGION North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Middle East and Africa
CUSTOMIZATION SCOPE Free report customization (equivalent to up to 4 analyst business days) with purchase. Added or changed country, region and segment scope.

Regional Analysis For Wind Instruments Market:

The Wind Instruments Market research report details current market trends, development outline, and several research methodologies. It illustrates the key factors that directly manipulate the market, for example, production strategies, development platforms, and product portfolio. According to our researchers, even minor changes in product profiles could lead to huge disruptions in the factors mentioned above.

➛ North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)
➛ Europe (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Russia and Italy)
➛ Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia)
➛ South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, etc.)
➛ Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

What insights does the Wind Instruments market report provide readers?

➜ Fragmentation of wind instruments based on product type, end use and region
➜ Comprehensive assessment of upstream raw materials, downstream demand and current market landscape
➜ Collaborations, R&D projects, acquisitions and product launches of each wind instrumentalist
➜ Various regulations imposed by governments on the consumption of wind instruments in detail
➜ Impact of modern technologies, such as big data and analytics, artificial intelligence and social media platforms on wind instruments

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